An Expedition Approach - Methods

The survey method chosen will depend on team expertise, instruments available, environment restraints. If time allows both forward and back bearings should be taken.This is essential when surveying in areas with large magnetic interference such as mines and lava tubes. For guidance on how to treat such data see http://home.utah.edu/~nahaj/cave/survey/internal-angles-example.html.

Most commonly used methods are disto, compass and clino or, more recently, paperless surveying using DistoX and PDA.